I recently started a new online course as moderator and documented the first 24 hours of activity. Read from bottom to top. Does anything need explaining?
I recently started a new online course as moderator and documented the first 24 hours of activity. Read from bottom to top. Does anything need explaining?
I just received this email from two new online tutors:
Could you please give us some best practice. We start today and maybe we should take care of something specially.
I am starting a second iteration of a well-established course on training online moderators in the role of tutor later this week so these sorts of issues are fresh in my mind as I get the course ready for my learners. I have a few general observations.
1. Learning should be a conversation (with yourself as you work through tasks, with your teacher, with your course peers or with other external experts/colleagues) rather than a display (through posting homework)
2. Online learning is not very different to offline learning. The same rules of politeness apply online as they do offline. eg when someone says something, acknowledge them
3. Tasks that are placed in forums should lead to some interaction (if they don’t you should consider moving them to another format in the next course iteration)
4. The first person to post in a forum should be congratulated “pour encourager les autres“.
5. Those who don’t post should be sent a personal private message offering help and support
6. Those who post but don’t meet expectations should be coached to make a correct response by posing an extending question in the forum. Corollary: Those who post outstanding contributions should be publicly acknowledged in the forum.
7. There should be a plan beforehand about which tasks will result in personalised feedback to every post. These will tend to be the longer, more reflective tasks.
8. A weekly message, as well as looking forward, should make reference to some good work that has been done in the past week by publicly calling out one or two exemplary contributions
If you just wait then very little will happen.
There are of course other factors to consider. If the task is a simple intro exercise to start the group thinking about the topic then maybe no responses are needed. Also, as you get further into the course and the group knows each other better and has trust in one another, then it helps for the facilitator to stand back and let the learners comment and support each other.
Hope that helps.
There is much more on carrying out online learning in my (for the moment) free book on online learning.
In the M-HOUSE project we are targeting home-based adults to explore the business skills they have from their experience of running a household over many years. In the same way that reframing the work of hotel attendants as exercise actually helped them to lose weight, we hope that reframing the often-undervalued work of running a household as entrepreneurial would boost confidence in personal development (which may or may not include starting a business in the end).
All organized learning must start with learning outcomes and in the M-HOUSE project, since we were essentially in a reframing exercise, we felt it was especially important to take everyday tasks and activities as our starting point which we called Key Learning Situations (KLS) on which to build learning activities. We chose 11 everyday tasks that we felt could map onto equivalent business skills such as making a major purchase, moving house, planning a major event, resolving conflict and coping with a sudden loss in income. We then asked a large group of external stakeholders to prioritise the 11 so that we could focus on a core group of 8 KLS or modules for our Business Skills Explorer online course which we plan to offer to home-based adults across the EU.
In order to provide a degree of predictability for the learners, we decided early on to adopt the same structure for each module as follows:
We overlaid onto these modules an ongoing reflective task targeted at personal development.
The rest of this post will focus on the process we went through to design one of those KLS online modules.
The module aims at raising the learner’s awareness of the skills related to accomplish an effective purchase. The learners should be able to
The initial idea for the tasks were as follows:
Practical application: Your washing machine has broken down
The table below charts some of the major changes we made to the initial draft ideas for the unit and why.
|Add relevance||We changed the washing machine to a computer as this more accurately reflects a purchase that may be needed as part of a new business.|
|Set the tone||We inserted a humorous 30 second Mac advert about buying decisions to reinforce the informal nature of the course.|
|Reframe positively||Instead of asking about learners’ worst purchase (which might make them feel incompetent) we asked them about their best purchase.|
|Add modelling||In the best purchase forum, the tutor adds a short account of their best purchase to model the amount of detail we are looking for and the type of purchase. Eg mundane is OK.|
|Promote added reflection||Instead of simply describing a good purchase, a short quiz was added to find out what sort of buyer you are (eg impulsive, informed etc). Forum posts should only be used when a response to each post is expected. So in this case a quiz with automatic feedback was better than a forum response.|
|Add structure||Clearly setting out and numbering the steps to be taken in each task. One of the greatest pitfalls in online learning is being unclear and uncertain. It can seem childish to break down the steps and ask for 5 key points, 3 sentences or 3 paragraphs, but if you don’t, some learners will do much less or much more than you bargained for.|
|Add presentation variety||The article was changed to a 3-minute video covering the same concepts. The unit looks less text-heavy as a result.|
|Reduce burden on tutor||Concept check questions were included in a self-checking quiz rather than an open forum which would have been very repetitive and which someone would have had to have checked.|
|Make use of peer input||We added a wiki exercise in which small groups of learners were asked to bullet point the 5 stages of consumer decision-making as it applied to a specific purchase they had made. In this way peers could see 5 or 6 examples but only contribute one.|
|Add guidelines (length of response, deadlines, time allocation)||In this case we included some technical advice and simplified the technical aspects of the task, especially the last task which mixed a mindmap, matrix and text.|
|Add collaboration-lite||See peer input for an example of this|
|Add collaboration-heavy||This is lacking in this module but there is also a question of balance and since the learners will be working together on planning an event in a concurrent module, then it would be too demanding to include a larger collaboration task also here.|
This is by way of illustrating how an online module can develop from first ideas.
PS. Using Key Learning Situations as a starting point is just one way of approaching course design. There are many others.
Thanks to RSCON5 for allowing me to present the outline of the new Erasmus+ program which allows teachers, trainers and others involved in education and training to be funded to attend residential courses in the EU. The recording of the 25 minute session is here. And my slides are below:
When I started tutoring the online version of the Certificate for Teaching Languages with Technology for The Consultants-E in 2010, it was fairly simple in terms of tool choice. For each digital task there were two or three mainstream tools to choose from and they were PC-based.
Wiki/ Wikispaces, Pbwiki, WetPaint
Blog/ Blogger, WordPress, Edublogs
Podcast/ Podomatic, Posterous
Asynchronous audio forum/ Voxopop
But now we are at several tipping points and the choice has become much harder and much less obvious.
PC to tablet
The iPad classroom is gaining traction mainly due to school and district-wide adoption. The main attraction of tablets in general and iPads in particular is that you get a simplified interface with additional capabilities related to touch and location. The simplification is also a weakness as it means that for technical tasks you still need your PC. So this two track approach doubles the number of tools you need to be familiar with. A compromise seems to be the Chromebook which is cheap, includes a keyboard and performs well technically. But both the Chromebook and tablet option require a constant and reliable Internet connection which is far from ubiquitous even within Europe where I am based but also globally since the CertICT attracts participants from all corners of the world.
Local to cloud
Working in the cloud is becoming very attractive mainly due to low cost and the convenience of being able to access your work from anywhere. Google Apps for Education is a prime example with a zero cost as against paying for Microsoft Office on every computer in the school. But there are privacy issues, especially relating to minors and it does mean that you have to be online almost constantly (see above).
Few to many
In the age of the rockstar start-up there are new apps and tools popping up every day. Especially in the area of virtual learning environments (VLE) I have noticed an explosion of tools vying for my attention. There are still market leaders in every field but they are having to improve continuously in order to maintain their dominance. And people are re-purposing existing tools in ways which were never imagined by their developers. A prime example of that is the touting of Facebook as a VLE. Conversely there have also been many casualties along the way with the demise of Posterous and certain beloved tools turning into legacy software such as Voxopop.
Specific to multi-purpose
Many digital tools are converging. So, whereas before the distinction between a blog, a wiki and a website was pretty clear-cut, the distinction is not so sharp any more. WordPress for example was built as a blog but is now used to function as a website with built-in blog function. It even has wiki qualities with the possibility to have several authors and to revert to previous versions. And website creators such as Google Sites and Weebly include a blog with no difficulty. Multi-function tools used to be pretty variable. For example the Moodle wiki has always caused problems and never been as good as a tailor-made wiki tool. We are now seeing convergence across the whole spectrum of tools so that it is difficult to define them. In theory this should cut down on the number of tools to be mastered.
I used the word mastery in the last paragraph but another marked trend has been the simplification of the tools so that there is a low cognitive cost to trying them out. Although I had a brief former life as a programmer and systems analyst I have only ever have had a rudimentary skill in building online spaces. A bit of basic html and the ability to embed goes a long way. But even that is becoming redundant as tools present you with big buttons to click, behind which all manner of clever stuff is going on. The upside of this simplification is that the focus can be where it should always have been, and that is on the pedagogy. And the flipside is that you get tempted to try out dozens more tools before making a decision simply because you can.
So the task of the CertICT tutor has become a more difficult one as the choice of recommended tools becomes much less obvious.
I just published a book on iBooks! The Little Book of Blogs is a compilation of blog posts collated from all the tutors at The Consultants-E where I have tutored the online Certificate in Teaching Languages with Technology for the last four years. The collection is a very wide-ranging one covering learning, teaching languages, tips on integrating technology in general and the use of mobile devices specifically as well as some hints and tips on keeping yourself current professionally. The experience of preparing the book on iBooks Author was relatively hassle-free but I was disappointed that I had to go to a third party application for something as basic as embedding videos. Thank you very much to Bookry for enabling this.
Not wanting anyone to feel left out I also produced a pdf version for which I added the contents page at the beginning though unfortunately internal links don’t work. This won’t be my last iBooks venture and I already have plans in June to produce a language learning book for the Danish market. This time it won’t be free!
The Consultants-E is offering a scholarship to enable one person living and working in a developing country (as defined by the World Bank) to take their e-moderation skills course starting in October free of charge. What is e-moderation? It’s the skill of guiding students through online learning activity whether that forms part of a blended course with face to face contact or a purely online course. Working online demands different skills as the signals that students send out about whether they understand, follow or are about to give up are quite different in an online environment than they are in the face to face situation. The course also looks at what types of activity work online and how to vary the task type. The course will be tutored by Lindsay Clandfield, lead author of MacMillan’s Global series of English books so you will be in good hands.
I have been collecting links about how technology can help learning even in low resource areas of the world with ScoopIt and it is quite clear that the ubiquity of mobile phone use is going to make the online option increasingly common in developing countries.
You need to apply for the scholarship by the end of August.
Full disclosure: I have been tutoring with The Consultants-E since 2009 but you don’t have to take my word for it. Go to the Consultants-E website and see some of the feedback which previous participants have left.
If you were ever curious about how the Absolutely Intercultural podcast came about and how it works then you may be interested in this interview I did recently with Shelly Terrell.
The interview was done as I was about to start as facilitator on The Consultants-E podcasting course. Yes, I know, I need a new webcam!
‘What’s a podcast?’ was the reply I got when I suggested to a young lady recently that her forthcoming study trip to India might feature in my podcast, Absolutely Intercultural. As I am about to facilitate one of The Consultants-E’s short podcast courses aimed at language teachers, this shows that the concept is perhaps not as well-known as we might think. If asked to explain, I usually reply along the lines that it is an Internet radio show but most of the assumptions you may make when you hear that can be broken and still be a podcast. So what does the phrase Internet radio show suggest? Audio, public, regularly published, professionally produced and available online. Why would any teacher want to commit themselves to that? Sounds like a lot of hard work.
The main advantage for language teachers is that podcasts support speaking and listening skills which can be overlooked in favour of reading and writing. The main advantage for language students is that when they make their own podcasts they can hear what they sound like and they can practice over and over before making their final recording. And practice they will, because a podcast is not just homework when it has an audience, even if that audience is password protected. As for listening, there is a wealth of free podcasts available to use whenever convenient as they can be downloaded and stored on an mp3 player or mobile phone for later.
So let’s take a closer look at what a podcast is to see if Internet radio show is a good description.
Audio: Most podcasts are audio but many are also video. Video is more attractive. You only have to consider the popularity of YouTube to see that. Can you name the audio equivalent of YouTube? No, I don’t suppose you can. But video is also more challenging to produce and not quite as mobile as audio for viewers who can’t enjoy video without risking their lives if they are watching on their morning run for example.
Public: The idea here is that the sound file you produce is uploaded online for others to enjoy rather than sitting on your local computer. Many people forget that that it’s possible to control access online through a password, for example if you upload your podcast to a blog. Many people also forget or are unaware of the powerful effect of audience. It doesn’t matter if the audience is only class peers and possibly parents. What matters is that this audio recording is suddenly not just homework, but a production that others are going to hear. This is a powerful motivator for most language learners and this is why they will suddenly want to practice again and again before they commit themselves to a final recording.
Regularly published: This is one of the easiest rules to break. It may suit your purposes that the podcast is just a one-off. On the other hand the discipline of producing a regular podcast could be another powerful motivator, providing that additional stress just before publication day when everything has to be ready. In fact there is an English course build around that regular stress, UIC London Radio, which recently won a prestigious ELTON award for good practice in TEFL. Although you get an audience more easily if you register your podcast with iTunes, this is not necessary for it to be called a podcast.
Professionally produced: The tools available to make a podcast are either free or ubuiquitous and quite easy to use so there is no need to call in professional help. Your PC has had a built-in audio recorder for years; your laptop too. But nowadays almost every language student comes to class with a mobile phone and even the most basic phone has an audio recorder. If you don’t believe me then I suggest you take a tour around your phone now. It may be called ‘audio notes’ or similar.
There are two choices about editing: Either you plan the recording meticulously so that no editing is needed or you record spontaneous conversation and edit later. Both approaches have merit for language learners. Learning the basic features of highlighting, copying, pasting or deleting and moving sections of audio around in the free audio editor Audacity is all you need to make a podcast of good enough quality. It’s only fair to mention that to save your creation in mp3 format in Audacity, the standard audio format for online sound, you also have to download an extra little bit of programming called the Lame file. I have explained how to do this in this short video.
The final part of podcasting is uploading it online. This can sound daunting but dedicated podcasting sites such as podomatic.com make it very simple and of course free. Most blogs now accept audio files so you can use a blog as your podcast portal. I would especially recommend the newer services such as Posterous and Tumblr which make it super easy to upload audio files and any additional notes and images you want to accompany the podcast.
Available online: Whether it is Internet or Intranet, uploading the finished sound file makes it much easier to share with others than if it is left on a local machine. I don’t think that storing a sound file locally qualifies it as a podcast. So, of all the assumptions conjured up by the term Internet radio show, this is the one which you really can’t avoid.
You and your students can also be consumers of podcasts; there are thousands out there both specifically for language learners and authentic recordings made in English. You can find a good list recently compiled by The Consultants-E here.
So is Internet radio show a good description of what a podcast is? I think it will do, though podcasts are probably more varied and flexible than what is implied by radio show. But the key concern is that the word does not seem to have penetrated the public consciousness which makes marketing podcasts and podcast courses slightly more difficult than it otherwise might be. But I’m looking forward to working with those brave souls who have made it through the jargon jungle to learn more about podcasting later this week!
Gavin Dudeney, one of the two owners of The Consultants-E for whom I do some facilitating work, has just written a harrowing post about what he has been going through in the last year. In brief he has been bullied, blackmailed and defamed with the bully telling him on several occasions that they hope that Gavin dies a slow painful death. He has been stalked online and defamed. His post is an attempt to get the story out into the open in an effort to neutralise the power the bully thinks they have over him. The harrassment includes blackmail and defamation and it seems that he has enough evidence against this person to take the case to the police. Although stressful for him, going public about this can’t be half as stressful as what he has been going through this past year.
Although it hasn’t been said in this case, I guess it won’t be long before someone blames the Internet for this. However when you look at the facts of the case I think the perpetrator is obviously disturbed and Internet or no Internet I think they would have found a victim no matter what. Without Internet it may not have been Gavin but I am sure that it would have been someone.
So I think that this case highlights the importance of being careful (although I don’t think that Gavin has been wreckless) but I don’t think that it makes a case for staying offline.